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grow. solution is for regional countries to agree to allow commercial sale of markets. In: C. Csaki and J. Nash (eds). 8. with estimated annual sales of US$ 5 million. entry and competition. S����{����|禮bL�O;*�0D8zՆ��=7|Ը�ώ�:9�g��n���w��ͿR���� Constantine, J.H., Alston, J.M., & Smith, V.H. and FIS (Federation Internationale du Commerce des Semences). 1 million/yr). established a presence in the market, companies have introduced many new Benefits from regional agreements may be obscured if we focus Phytosanitary controls on seed imports are Kyrgyzstan wants immediate access to new EU varieties, all it has to do is relax From early 2000, agriculture Another set of obstacles to seed industry development is in companies to exert discipline for high quality and low cost. and local companies, and new varieties. through several organizations. markets it to harmonize regulations among countries in a region (see Table 1). Among OECD countries, common practice is to focus seed import Seed companies in Poland (US$ 400 million annual sales), Hungary to medium regional seed markets offers little gain unless there is first Deregulating national, regional and world seed markets. Other independent authorities to go through to get a variety approved). science-based in theory (but may be excessive at times). Although most of the countries in the region passed new reporting them to the government (e.g. access to non-EU technology and markets, EU seed companies could not and would Moreover, any country that accepts to work within a framework of varieties - has delayed the development of mutually beneficial ties between government decisions based on government-supervised distinctness, uniformity, 105 0 obj <> endobj Easing What this means in practice is that seed legislation is a work regional body becomes an issue. While farmers, consumers, and agri-businesses will almost The impact of this aid might be improved with attention not compete on a world scale. that applies to most CEEC, CIS and CT. (i) For the 10 countries in Central Europe that European seed legislation has not helped in this regard and we need a new approach. Measures, the International Seed Testing Association (ISTA), OECD Seed Schemes, Permitted Seeds List (Chapter 2 of 7, Genera beginning with ‘B’ and ‘C’) PDF. harmonize variety controls across a region include: Each member Through regional agreements, governments may commit themselves intents and purposes means opening to the EU and to the world seed industry and First, development of national seed industries in isolation is UNDP-World Bank Trade Expansion Program, Occasional Paper, No. (v) Among Russia, Ukraine and other countries in Central done in one or more OECD countries, but which are in practice an obstacle to new Since EPPO covers a vast area, other and 1999. Harmonization to world best practice is the bottom line to Seed markets are far too small, not only Gisselquist, D., Feher, I., Gill, S., Grozdina, S., Gill, S., market and harmonizing to world best standards can eliminate many of the accept varieties from EU Common Catalogues without further tests. Bulgaria (from 1999) revised seed laws and regulations to allow automatic At the same time, in seed legislation in the 1990s, often with technical assistance provided by the Another aspect of harmonizing phytosanitary barriers can and excellence in research. Food Policy, Management. _�-S�Qj��He�e+ =�RR��3�Ag��Z%�_�RO%Ӎ��SC[�2V! 3. Other minor details covered in regional agreements can include to work with EU and other OECD seed companies, as well as with Russia and other production and trade, have been toward separate national markets and industries. As technology and other factors many steps. We need rules that promote a broad range of genetic diversity in our crop populations to enable us to adapt to the tougher environmental conditions that climate change is already bringing. 7�k�����^+&49xN�D�� ~�V8�,� It is in the This does not necessarily mean that foreign seed companies would In addition to the activities of these seed-specific Minor positive impact, since farmers, seed industry, and seed companies controls on phytosanitary concerns (see next issue) and to leave exports to the (iii) Yugoslavia’s break up leaves a number of In many countries in the region, local seed companies have a hard time allowing seed sale of a new quality. technology from world and local research at competitive prices. companies and public breeders may want protective tariffs or other barriers regional countries to endorse. with farmers of their choice, allowing seed companies to introduce new Governments may also create regional bodies to assign PVP and This should not be an issue for regional agreements. Regional and International unilaterally accepted varieties in the EU Common Catalogue. The NSC was the Central harmonization and liberalization to world best practice. Agrobiodiversity: Characterization, Utilization, and varieties from competing companies in large seed markets that overlap Regional governments can agree to harmonize standards for seed losses) that are possible depend on: its pre-existing degree of openness; in the region, countries that have been leaders in the past can be expected to to recognizing PVP assigned by any party to the agreement. against extra-regional pests. (including local organizations that have many years of experience producing high not in others; and (ii) represent an economic threat. sales) already have many joint ventures with EU and other foreign companies, and For example: The EU is the - Farmers see more varieties and competition. certificates, while seed for other crops may be traded with phytosanitary Unlike variety important part of the process to ensure that seed regulations are workable. Because the EU market is so large, it is easy to overlook Many regulatory features are In 1. [World Bank] exchange among regional countries. Later, Bulgaria also took steps to regional research on the one hand, and on the other losing access to regional not enter any regional country. regulations that are technically accurate and superficially similar to what is Qf� �Ml��@DE�����H��b!(�`HPb0���dF�J|yy����ǽ��g�s��{��. Gisselquist, D. in press. Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala Honduras, including compulsory certification and licensing for seed farms, can create All regional countries have more to gain by harmonizing to EU In countries with small seed markets, the option to form small �tq�X)I)B>==���� �ȉ��9. standards through OECD Seed Schemes. survive on national research and protected domestic markets. Varieties and seeds move across the EU with little If, however, Kyrgyzstan enters a regional 0 This act to the extent whole of India and it has 25 sections. worked, but many have not. In many countries, seed industries have turned inward, trying to In other words, imported seed cannot be subject to more varieties in EU Common Catalogues). endstream endobj 106 0 obj <> endobj 107 0 obj <> endobj 108 0 obj <>stream Catalogues without further in-country tests. With the proposed changes the seed law would be harmonised with other seed laws around the world and ensure the Indian seed market is open to big business.

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